Install Tableau Server in a Disconnected (Air-Gapped) Environment
You can install Tableau Server in a disconnected environment that has no outside network access of any kind. Such disconnected environments, commonly referred to as air-gapped, are used when high security is needed to prevent data breaches or to guard against hacking. Air-gapped environments have no internet access, no outside network access, no outside wireless access, etc. The only means of getting software and data into or out of an air-gapped environment is by using removable media such as USB sticks or writeable optical CDs or DVDs.
Installing Tableau Server in an air-gapped environment is an advanced task for IT administrators who are familiar with the security considerations, best practices, and pitfalls of installing software in air-gapped environments.
The following Tableau Server features will be unavailable or will have reduced functionality in an air-gapped environment:
Maps – Tableau Server uses externally hosted map data by default. Beginning with version 2020.4.0, you can configure Tableau Server to use offline maps. With earlier versions of Tableau, maps are unavailable in an air-gapped environment unless you also install a map server in your air-gapped environment. For more details, see Displaying Maps in an Air-Gapped Environment.
Licensing – Tableau Server needs to connect to the internet in order to activate product keys. However, you can manually activate the product keys.
External data – Any data located outside your air-gapped environment is unavailable.
In order to install Tableau Server in an air-gapped environment, you’ll need the following:
Trusted computer with limited access to the internet that you can use to download the installation packages and resources required by Tableau Server. A trusted computer has been scanned and cleared of any viruses and malware.
Trusted removable media that you can use to transfer the downloaded software to your air-gapped environment. Trusted removable media is removable media that is new and previously unused and comes from a reputable or known source. Trusted removable media has been scanned and verified that it does not contain any viruses or malware.
Air-gapped environment with computers and storage that meet the requirements for installing Tableau Server.
The easiest way to install Tableau Server on a computer in an air-gapped environment is to do so before the computer is placed into the air-gapped environment. If that’s not possible you’ll need to download the required packages to a trusted computer outside the air gap:
On a trusted computer outside the air gap with internet access, download the Tableau Server installation package.
Extract the list of dependent packages:
On Ubuntu and Debian:
dpkg --field <debfile> Depends(where
<debfile>is the name of the .deb package you downloaded from Tableau).
dpkg --field tableau-server-linux-1.deb DependsExample output:
ca-certificates, fontconfig, net-tools, bash-completion, ca-certificates-java, freeglut3, libegl1-mesa, libfreetype6, libgssapi-krb5-2, libxcomposite1, libxrender1, libxslt1.1, lsb-core
On RHEL and RHEL-like Linux distributions:
yum -q deplist <RPM file>(where
<RPM file>is the .rpm package you downloaded from Tableau).
yum -q deplist tableau-server-linux_1.rpmExample output:
package: tableau-server-10400.17.0703.1600.x86_64 10400-17.0703.1600 dependency: /bin/sh provider: bash.x86_64 4.2.46-21.el7_3 dependency: bash-completion provider: bash-completion.noarch 1:2.1-6.el7 dependency: ca-certificates provider: ca-certificates.noarch 2017.2.14-70.1.el7_3 dependency: fontconfig provider: fontconfig.x86_64 2.10.95-10.el7 provider: fontconfig.i686 2.10.95-10.el7 dependency: freeglut provider: freeglut.x86_64 2.8.1-3.el7 provider: freeglut.i686 2.8.1-3.el7 dependency: freetype provider: freetype.x86_64 2.4.11-12.el7 provider: freetype.i686 2.4.11-12.el7 dependency: krb5-libs provider: krb5-libs.x86_64 1.14.1-27.el7_3 provider: krb5-libs.i686 1.14.1-27.el7_3 dependency: libXcomposite provider: libXcomposite.x86_64 0.4.4-4.1.el7 provider: libXcomposite.i686 0.4.4-4.1.el7 dependency: libXrender provider: libXrender.x86_64 0.9.8-2.1.el7 provider: libXrender.i686 0.9.8-2.1.el7 dependency: libxslt provider: libxslt.x86_64 1.1.28-5.el7 provider: libxslt.i686 1.1.28-5.el7 dependency: mesa-libEGL provider: mesa-libEGL.x86_64 11.2.2-2.20160614.el7 provider: mesa-libEGL.i686 11.2.2-2.20160614.el7 dependency: net-tools provider: net-tools.x86_64 2.0-0.17.20131004git.el7 dependency: redhat-lsb-core provider: redhat-lsb-core.x86_64 4.1-27.el7.centos.1 provider: redhat-lsb-core.i686 4.1-27.el7.centos.1
Download each of the dependent packages:
On Ubuntu and Debian:
apt-get download <package1> <package2>…
On RHEL and RHEL-like Linux distributions:
yumdownloader <package1> <package2>…
Transfer the packages to your removable media.
On your air-gapped computer, insert the removable media containing the Tableau Server installation package and dependent packages, and then run the installer.
After installation is complete, you can activate the Tableau Server product keys. For more information, see Activating Tableau Server in an Air-Gapped Environment.
Because an air-gapped computer is not connected to the internet, you’ll need to perform the Tableau Server activation process manually.
Step 1. Transcribe data from your air-gapped system into an activation request template.
On your Tableau Server in the air-gapped environment, use TSM to obtain the offline activation file. At a command prompt:
tsm licenses get-offline-activation-file -k <product-key> -o <target-directory>
<target-directory>must exist. You can obtain your product key in the Tableau Customer Portal.
On a trusted computer that is connected to the internet and is capable of sending files via email, right-click and choose Save link as to download either the server_firstpass_linux.tlq or the server_secondpass_linux.tlq file. The firstpass template is used when the computer has never had Tableau Server installed on it before.
Open both the
offline.tlqfile from the disconnected computer, and the appropriate
server_secondpass_linux.tlqfile in an XML text editor such as Notepad++ on the trusted computer that has Internet access. You'll need to write down the values from the disconnected computer in order to copy them to the computer that has Internet access.
Update the following XML elements in the appropriate .tlq file (
server_secondpass_linux.tlq) with the values for the same elements in
offline.tlqon the disconnected computer. The template file has X's where you need to change the values. Do not change anything other than the values below.
All the Machine / Hash values in the .tlq files are Hex values. The only valid characters are 0 - 9 and A - F. Use all caps for any letters.
Line 2 - <EntitlementId>
Line 5 - <ClientVersion>
Line 5 - <RevisionType> (This value is only present in the server_secondpass_linux.tlq file.)
Line 5 - <MachineIdentifier> (This value is only present in the server_secondpass_linux.tlq file.)
Line 11 - <Value> (If the value is not present, remove the "X" place holder, leaving <Value></Value>.)
Line 12 - <Value> (If the value is not present, remove the "X" place holder, leaving <Value></Value>.)
Line 13 - <Value> (If the value is not present, remove the "X" place holder, leaving <Value></Value>.)
Line 15 - <SequenceNumber>
Line 61 - <Hash>
Upload the edited template (
offline.tlq) to the Tableau Offline Activation(Link opens in a new window) website.
The website should say
The activation was successful. Please click here to download your activation file.
activation.tlffile and transfer it to your Tableau Server.
Step 2. Initialize or activate your license
Move the activation file (
activation.tlf) to your disconnected computer using trusted removable media.
Run the following command:
tsm licenses activate -f <path-and-activation-file>
First time license activation
If this is the first Tableau license activated on the computer, you will see this message:
Your license has been initialized. To complete the activation, we need one more exchange. Generate and send to Tableau a second activation request file.
You need to follow the steps below to activate your license. If you are not sure whether you need to repeat the steps, you can run this command:
tsm licenses list
If you see a message like this one you need to repeat the steps above:
No licenses are currently activated.
Subsequent license activation
If this is not the first Tableau license activated on the computer, or if you have completed the steps above two times, you should see the message "
Activation successful.," which indicates that Tableau Server is activated.
Note: You may have to perform offline activation twice to completely activate your air-gapped Tableau Server. The first offline activation sets up Trusted Storage on the computer if Tableau has never been licensed on it before. The second offline activation propagates the licensing information into Trusted Storage. If you’re upgrading an existing install of Tableau Server, right-click and choose Save link as to download the server_secondpass_linux.tlq file. It will match all the places to put the values from the generated .tlq file.
In an air-gapped environment, maps in Tableau Server will be unavailable by default due to the lack of internet access. If you have Tableau Server 2020.4.0 or later, you can configure Tableau to use local maps. If you have an earlier version, you can use one of several workarounds to display maps in an offline environment.
Configuring Tableau Server to use offline maps (version 2020.4.0 and later):
Open a command prompt as administrator.
Configure Tableau to use locally available offline maps:
tsm configuration set -k vizqlserver.force_maps_to_offline -v true
tsm pending-changes apply
Workarounds to display maps in Tableau Server in an offline environment (versions earlier than 2020.4.0):
Option 1 – Use the offline background maps
To use the offline background map select Map > Background maps > Offline. For more information, see Select Background Maps(Link opens in a new window).
Note: Due to size limitations with the offline map, zooming in too deep may result in errors as the images for the more close-up maps are not stored offline.
Option 2 – Use a map as a background image
Locate the desired map online and save it as an image file, or copy a map from another location. Set this map image as a static background image in Tableau Desktop. For more information, see Use Background Images in Your Views(Link opens in a new window).
Note: Zooming in and out will not work with background images.
Option 3 – Use a local GeoServer
For more information, see Use Web Map Service (WMS) Servers(Link opens in a new window).