Tableau Functions (by Category)

The Tableau functions in this reference are organized by category. Click a category to browse its functions. Or press Ctrl+F (Command-F on a Mac) to open a search box that you can use to search the page for a specific function.

Number functions

Function

Syntax

Description

ABS

ABS(number)

Returns the absolute value of the given number.

Examples:

ABS(-7) = 7
ABS([Budget Variance])

The second example returns the absolute value for all the numbers contained in the Budget Variance field.

ACOS

ACOS(number)

Returns the arc cosine of the given number. The result is in radians.

Example:

ACOS(-1) = 3.14159265358979

ASIN

ASIN(number)

Returns the arc sine of a given number. The result is in radians.

Example:

ASIN(1) = 1.5707963267949

ATAN

ATAN(number)

Returns the arc tangent of a given number. The result is in radians.

Example:

ATAN(180) = 1.5652408283942

ATAN2

ATAN2(y number, x number)

Returns the arc tangent of two given numbers (x and y). The result is in radians.

Example:

ATAN2(2, 1) = 1.10714871779409

CEILING

CEILING(number)

Rounds a number to the nearest integer of equal or greater value.

Example:

CEILING(3.1415) = 4

Availability by data source:

Data Source Support
Microsoft Access Not supported
Microsoft Excel Supported
Text File Supported
Statistical File Supported
Tableau Server Supported
Actian Vector Not supported
Amazon Aurora Not supported
Amazon EMR Hadoop Hive Supported
Amazon Redshift Not supported
Aster Database Not supported
Cloudera Hadoop Supported
DataStax Enterprise Supported
EXASOL Not supported
Firebird Not supported
Google Analytics Supported
Google BigQuery Supported
Google Cloud SQL Not supported
Hortonworks Hadoop Hive Supported
IBM BigInsights Not supported
IBM DB2 Not supported
IBM PDA (Netezza) Not supported
MapR Hadoop Hive Supported
MarkLogic Not supported
Microsoft Analysis Services Not supported
Microsoft PowerPivot Not supported
Microsoft SQL Server Not supported
MySQL Not supported
Oracle Not supported
Oracle Essbase Not supported
Actian Matrix (ParAccel) Not supported
Pivotal Greenplum Not supported
PostgreSQL Not supported
Progress OpenEdge Not supported
Salesforce Supported
SAP HANA Not supported
SAP Sybase ASE Not supported
SAP Sybase IQ Not supported
Spark SQL Supported
Splunk Not supported
Teradata Not supported
Teradata OLAP Connector Not supported
Vertica Not supported

COS

COS(number)

Returns the cosine of an angle. Specify the angle in radians.

Example:

COS(PI( ) /4) = 0.707106781186548

COT

COT(number)

Returns the cotangent of an angle. Specify the angle in radians.

Example:

COT(PI( ) /4) = 1

DEGREES

DEGREES(number)

Converts a given number in radians to degrees.

Example:

DEGREES(PI( )/4) = 45.0

DIV

DIV(integer1, integer2)

Returns the integer part of a division operation, in which integer1 is divided by integer2.

Example:

DIV(11,2) = 5

EXP

EXP(number)

Returns e raised to the power of the given number.

Examples:

EXP(2) = 7.389
EXP(-[Growth Rate]*[Time])

FLOOR

FLOOR(number)

Rounds a number to the nearest integer of equal or lesser value.

Example:

FLOOR(3.1415) = 3

Availability by data source:

Data Source Support
Microsoft Access Not supported
Microsoft Excel Supported
Text File Supported
Statistical File Supported
Tableau Server Supported
Actian Vector Not supported
Amazon Aurora Not supported
Amazon EMR Hadoop Hive Supported
Amazon Redshift Not supported
Aster Database Not supported
Cloudera Hadoop Supported
DataStax Enterprise Supported
EXASOL Not supported
Firebird Not supported
Google Analytics Supported
Google BigQuery Supported
Google Cloud SQL Not supported
Hortonworks Hadoop Hive Supported
IBM BigInsights Not supported
IBM DB2 Not supported
IBM Netezza Not supported
MapR Hadoop Hive Supported
MarkLogic Not supported
Microsoft Analysis Services Not supported
Microsoft PowerPivot Not supported
Microsoft SQL Server Not supported
MySQL Not supported
Oracle Not supported
Oracle Essbase Not supported
ParAccel Not supported
Pivotal Greenplum Not supported
PostgreSQL Not supported
Progress OpenEdge Not supported
Salesforce Supported
SAP HANA Not supported
SAP Sybase ASE Not supported
SAP Sybase IQ Not supported
Spark SQL Supported
Splunk Not supported
Teradata Not supported
Teradata OLAP Connector Not supported
Vertica Not supported

HEXBINX

HEXBINX(number, number)

Maps an x, y coordinate to the x-coordinate of the nearest hexagonal bin. The bins have side length 1, so the inputs may need to be scaled appropriately.

HEXBINX and HEXBINY are binning and plotting functions for hexagonal bins. Hexagonal bins are an efficient and elegant option for visualizing data in an x/y plane such as a map. Because the bins are hexagonal, each bin closely approximates a circle and minimizes variation in the distance from the data point to the center of the bin. This makes the clustering both more accurate and informative.

Example:

HEXBINX([Longitude], [Latitude])

HEXBINY

HEXBINY(number, number)

Maps an x, y coordinate to the y-coordinate of the nearest hexagonal bin. The bins have side length 1, so the inputs may need to be scaled appropriately.

Example:

HEXBINY([Longitude], [Latitude])

LN

LN(number)

Returns the natural logarithm of a number. Returns Null if number is less than or equal to 0.

LOG

LOG(number [, base])

Returns the logarithm of a number for the given base. If the base value is omitted, base 10 is used.

MAX

MAX(number, number)

Returns the maximum of the two arguments, which must be of the same type. Returns Null if either argument is Null. MAX can also be applied to a single field in an aggregate calculation.

Examples:

MAX(4,7)
MAX(Sales,Profit)
MAX([First Name],[Last Name])

MIN

MIN(number, number)

Returns the minimum of the two arguments, which must be of the same type. Returns Null if either argument is Null. MIN can also be applied to a single field in an aggregate calculation.

Examples:

MIN(4,7)
MIN(Sales,Profit)
MIN([First Name],[Last Name])

PI

PI( )

Returns the numeric constant pi: 3.14159.

POWER

POWER(number, power)

Raises the number to the specified power.

Examples:

POWER(5,2) = 52 = 25
POWER(Temperature, 2)

You can also use the ^ symbol:

5^2 = POWER(5,2) = 25

RADIANS

RADIANS(number)

Converts the given number from degrees to radians.

Example:

RADIANS(180) = 3.14159

ROUND

ROUND(number, [decimals])

Rounds numbers to a specified number of digits. The decimals argument specifies how many decimal points of precision to include in the final result. If decimals is omitted, number is rounded to the nearest integer.

Example:

This example rounds every Sales value to an integer:

ROUND(Sales)

Some databases, such as SQL Server, allow specification of a negative length, where -1 rounds number to 10's, -2 rounds to 100's, and so on. This is not true of all databases. For example, it is not true of Excel or Access.

SIGN

SIGN(number)

Returns the sign of a number: The possible return values are -1 if the number is negative, 0 if the number is zero, or 1 if the number is positive.

Example:

If the average of the profit field is negative, then

SIGN(AVG(Profit)) = -1

SIN

SIN(number)

Returns the sine of an angle. Specify the angle in radians.

Examples:

SIN(0) = 1.0
SIN(PI( )/4) = 0.707106781186548

SQRT

SQRT(number)

Returns the square root of a number.

Example:

SQRT(25) = 5

SQUARE

SQUARE(number)

Returns the square of a number.

Example:

SQUARE(5) = 25

TAN

TAN(number)

Returns the tangent of an angle. Specify the angle in radians..

Example:

TAN(PI ( )/4) = 1.0

ZN

ZN(expression)

Returns the expression if it is not null, otherwise returns zero. Use this function to use zero values instead of null values.

Example:

ZN([Profit]) = [Profit]

String functions

Function

Syntax

Definition

ASCII

ASCII(string)

Returns the ASCII code for the first character of string.

Example:

ASCII('A') = 65

CHAR

CHAR(number)

Returns the character encoded by the ASCII code number.

Example:

CHAR(65) = 'A'

CONTAINS

CONTAINS(string, substring)

Returns true if the given string contains the specified substring.

Example:

CONTAINS(“Calculation”, “alcu”) = true

ENDSWITH

ENDSWITH(string, substring)

Returns true if the given string ends with the specified substring. Trailing white spaces are ignored.

Example:

ENDSWITH(“Tableau”, “leau”) = true

FIND

FIND(string, substring, [start])

Returns the index position of substring in string, or 0 if the substring isn't found. If the optional argument start is added, the function ignores any instances of substring that appear before the index position start. The first character in the string is position 1.

Examples:

FIND("Calculation", "alcu") = 2
FIND("Calculation", "Computer") = 0
FIND("Calculation", "a", 3) = 7
FIND("Calculation", "a", 2) = 2
FIND("Calculation", "a", 8) = 0
FIND("Calculation", "a", 3) = 7
FIND("Calculation", "a", 2) = 2
FIND("Calculation", "a", 8) = 0

FINDNTH

FINDNTH(string, substring, occurrence)

Returns the position of the nth occurrence of substring within the specified string, where n is defined by the occurrence argument.

Note: FINDNTH is not available for all data sources.

Example:

FINDNTH("Calculation", "a", 2) = 7

LEFT

LEFT(string, number)

Returns the left-most number of characters in the string.

Example:

LEFT("Matador", 4) = "Mata"

LEN

LEN(string)

Returns the length of the string.

Example:

LEN("Matador") = 7

LOWER

LOWER(string)

Returns string, with all characters lowercase.

Example:

LOWER("ProductVersion") = "productversion"

LTRIM

LTRIM(string)

Returns the string with any leading spaces removed.

Example:

LTRIM(" Matador ") = "Matador "

MAX

MAX(a, b)

 

Returns the maximum of a and b (which must be of the same type). This function is usually used to compare numbers, but also works on strings. With strings, MAX finds the value that is highest in the sort sequence defined by the database for that column. It returns Null if either argument is Null.

Example:

MAX ("Apple","Banana") = "Banana"

MID

(MID(string, start, [length])

Returns the string starting at index position start. The first character in the string is position 1. If the optional argument length is added, the returned string includes only that number of characters.

Examples:

MID("Calculation", 2) = "alculation"
MID("Calculation", 2, 5) ="alcul"

MIN

MIN(a, b)

Returns the minimum of a and b (which must be of the same type). This function is usually used to compare numbers, but also works on strings. With strings, MIN finds the value that is lowest in the sort sequence. It returns Null if either argument is Null.

Example:

MIN ("Apple","Banana") = "Apple"

REPLACE

REPLACE(string, substring, replacement)

Searches string for substring and replaces it with replacement. If substring is not found, the string is not changed.

Example:

REPLACE("Version8.5", "8.5", "9.0") = "Version9.0"

RIGHT

RIGHT(string, number)

Returns the right-most number of characters in string.

Example:

RIGHT("Calculation", 4) = "tion"

RTRIM

RTRIM(string)

Returns string with any trailing spaces removed.

Example:

RTRIM(" Calculation ") = " Calculation"

SPACE

SPACE(number)

Returns a string that is composed of the specified number of repeated spaces.

Example:

SPACE(1) = " "

SPLIT

SPLIT(string, delimiter, token number)

Returns a substring from a string, using a delimiter character to divide the string into a sequence of tokens.

The string is interpreted as an alternating sequence of delimiters and tokens. So for the string abc-defgh-i-jkl, where the delimiter character is ‘-‘, the tokens are abc, defgh, i, and jlk. Think of these as tokens 1 through 4. SPLIT returns the token corresponding to the token number. When the token number is positive, tokens are counted starting from the left end of the string; when the token number is negative, tokens are counted starting from the right.

Examples:

SPLIT (‘a-b-c-d’, ‘-‘, 2) = ‘b’
SPLIT (‘a|b|c|d’, ‘|‘, -2) = ‘c’


Note: The split and custom split commands are available for the following data sources types: Tableau data extracts, Microsoft Excel, Text File, PDF File, Salesforce, OData, Microsoft Azure Market Place, Google Analytics, Vertica, Oracle, MySQL, PostgreSQL, Teradata, Amazon Redshift, Aster Data, Google Big Query, Cloudera Hadoop Hive, Hortonworks Hive, and Microsoft SQL Server.

Some data sources impose limits on splitting string. The following table shows which data sources support negative token numbers (splitting from the right) and whether there is a limit on the number of splits allow per data source. A SPLIT function that specifies a negative token number and would be legal with other data sources will return this error with these data sources: “Splitting from right is not support by the data source.”

 

Data Source Left/Right Constraints Maximum Number of Splits Version limitations
Tableau Data Extract Both Infinite  
Microsoft Excel Both Infinite  
Text file Both Infinite  
Salesforce Both Infinite  
OData Both Infinite  
Google Analytics Both Infinite  
Tableau Data Server Both Infinite Supported in version 9.0.
Vertica Left only 10  
Oracle Left only 10  
MySQL Both 10  
PostgreSQL Left only prior to version 9.0; both for version 9.0 and above 10  
Teradata Left only 10 Version 14 and later
Amazon Redshift Left only 10  
Aster Database Left only 10  
Google BigQuery Left only 10  
Hortonworks Hadoop Hive Left only 10  
Cloudera Hadoop Left only 10 Impala supported starting in version 2.3.0.
Microsoft SQL Server Both 10 2008 and later

STARTSWITH

STARTSWITH(string, substring)

Returns true if string starts with substring. Leading white spaces are ignored.

Example:

STARTSWITH(“Joker”, “Jo”) = true

TRIM

TRIM(string)

Returns the string with leading and trailing spaces removed.

Example:

TRIM(" Calculation ") = "Calculation"

UPPER

UPPER(string)

Returns string, with all characters uppercase.

Example:

UPPER("Calculation") = "CALCULATION"

Date functions

Tableau provides a variety of date functions. Many of the examples use the # symbol with date expressions. See Literal expression syntax for an explanation of this symbol. Additionally, many date functions use date_part, which is a constant string argument. The valid date_part values that you can use are:

date_part Values
'year' Four-digit year
'quarter' 1-4
'month' 1-12 or "January", "February", and so on
'dayofyear' Day of the year; Jan 1 is 1, Feb 1 is 32, and so on
'day' 1-31
'weekday' 1-7 or "Sunday", "Monday", and so on
'week' 1-52
'hour' 0-23
'minute' 0-59
'second' 0-60

Note: Date functions do not take account of the configured fiscal year start. See .Fiscal Dates.

Function

Syntax

Description

DATEADD

DATEADD(date_part, interval, date)

Returns the specified date with the specified number interval added to the specified date_part of that date.

Supports ISO 8601 dates.

Example:

DATEADD('month', 3, #2004-04-15#) = 2004-07-15 12:00:00 AM

This expression adds three months to the date #2004-04-15#.

DATEDIFF

DATEDIFF(date_part, date1, date2, [start_of_week])

Returns the difference between date1 and date2 expressed in units of date_part.

The start_of_week parameter, which you can use to specify which day is to be considered the first day or the week, is optional. Possible values are 'monday', 'tuesday', etc. If it is omitted, the start of week is determined by the data source. See Date Properties for a Data Source.

Supports ISO 8601 dates.

Examples:

DATEDIFF('week', #2013-09-22#, #2013-09-24#, 'monday')= 1
DATEDIFF('week', #2013-09-22#, #2013-09-24#, 'sunday')= 0

The first expression returns 1 because when start_of_week is 'monday', then 22 September (a Sunday) and 24 September (a Tuesday) are in different weeks. The second expression returns 0 because when start_of_week is 'sunday' then 22 September (a Sunday) and 24 September (a Tuesday) are in the same week.

DATENAME

DATENAME(date_part, date, [start_of_week])

Returns date_part of date as a string. The start_of_week parameter, which you can use to specify which day is to be considered the first day or the week, is optional. Possible values are 'monday', 'tuesday', etc. If start_of_week is omitted, the start of week is determined by the data source. See Date Properties for a Data Source.

Supports ISO 8601 dates.

Examples:

DATENAME('year', #2004-04-15#) = "2004"
DATENAME('month', #2004-04-15#) = "April"

DATEPART

DATEPART(date_part, date, [start_of_week])

Returns date_part of date as an integer.

The start_of_week parameter, which you can use to specify which day is to be considered the first day or the week, is optional. Possible values are 'monday', 'tuesday', etc. If start_of_week is omitted, the start of week is determined by the data source. See Date Properties for a Data Source.

Note: When the date_part is weekday, the start_of_week parameter is ignored. This is because Tableau relies on a fixed weekday ordering to apply offsets.

Supports ISO 8601 dates.

Examples:

DATEPART('year', #2004-04-15#) = 2004
DATEPART('month', #2004-04-15#) = 4

DATETRUNC

DATETRUNC(date_part, date, [start_of_week])

Truncates the specified date to the accuracy specified by the date_part. This function returns a new date. For example, when you truncate a date that is in the middle of the month at the month level, this function returns the first day of the month. The start_of_week parameter, which you can use to specify which day is to be considered the first day or the week, is optional. Possible values are 'monday', 'tuesday', etc. If start_of_week is omitted, the start of week is determined by the data source. See Date Properties for a Data Source.

Supports ISO 8601 dates.

Examples:

DATETRUNC('quarter', #2004-08-15#) = 2004-07-01 12:00:00 AM
DATETRUNC('month', #2004-04-15#) = 2004-04-01 12:00:00 AM

DAY

DAY(date)

Returns the day of the given date as an integer.

Example:

DAY(#2004-04-12#) = 12

ISDATE

ISDATE(string)

Returns true if a given string is a valid date.

Example:

ISDATE("April 15, 2004") = true

MAKEDATE

MAKEDATE(year, month, day)

Returns a date value constructed from the specified year, month, and date.

Available for Tableau Data Extracts. Check for availability in other data sources.

Example:

MAKEDATE(2004, 4, 15) = #April 15, 2004#

MAKEDATETIME

MAKEDATETIME(date, time)

Returns a datetime that combines a date and a time. The date can be a date, datetime, or a string type. The time must be a datetime.

Note: This function is available only for MySQL-compatible connections (which for Tableau are MySQL and Amazon Aurora).

Examples:

MAKEDATETIME("1899-12-30", #07:59:00#) = #12/30/1899 7:59:00 AM#
MAKEDATETIME([Date], [Time]) = #1/1/2001 6:00:00 AM#

MAKETIME

MAKETIME(hour, minute, second)

Returns a date value constructed from the specified hour, minute, and second.

Available for Tableau Data Extracts. Check for availability in other data sources.

Example:

MAKETIME(14, 52, 40) = #14:52:40#

MAX

MAX(expression) or MAX(expr1, expr2)

Usually applied to numbers but also works on dates. Returns the maximum of a and b (a and b must be of the same type). Returns Null if either argument is Null.

Examples:

MAX(#2004-01-01# ,#2004-03-01#) = 2004-03-01 12:00:00 AM
MAX([ShipDate1], [ShipDate2])

MIN

MIN(expression) or MIN(expr1, expr2)

Usually applied to numbers but also works on dates. Returns the minimum of a and b (a and b must be of the same type). Returns Null if either argument is Null.

Examples:

MIN(#2004-01-01# ,#2004-03-01#) = 2004-01-01 12:00:00 AM
MIN([ShipDate1], [ShipDate2])

MONTH

MONTH(date)

Returns the month of the given date as an integer.

Example:

MONTH(#2004-04-15#) = 4

NOW

NOW( )

Returns the current date and time.

The return varies depending on the nature of the connection:

  • For a live, unpublished connection, NOW returns the data source server time.

  • For a live, published connection, NOW returns the data source server time.

  • For an unpublished extract, NOW returns the local system time.

  • For a published extract, NOW returns the local time of the Tableau Server Data Engine. When there are multiple worker machines indifferent time zones, this can produce inconsistent results.

Example:

NOW( ) = 2004-04-15 1:08:21 PM

TODAY

TODAY( )

Returns the current date.

Example:

TODAY( ) = 2004-04-15

YEAR

YEAR (date)

Returns the year of the given date as an integer.

Example:

YEAR(#2004-04-15#) = 2004

Logical functions

Function

Syntax

Description

AND

IF <expr1> AND <expr2> THEN <then> END

Performs a logical conjunction on two expressions.

Example:

IF (ATTR([Market]) = "Africa" AND SUM([Sales]) > [Emerging Threshold] )THEN "Well Performing"

CASE CASE <expression> WHEN <value1> THEN <return1> WHEN <value2> THEN <return2> ... ELSE <default return> END

Performs logical tests and returns appropriate values. The CASE function evaluates expression, compares it to a sequence of values, value1, value2, etc., and returns a result. When a value that matches expression is encountered, CASE returns the corresponding return value. If no match is found, the default return expression is used. If there is no default return and no values match, then Null is returned.

CASE is often easier to use than IIF or IF THEN ELSE.

Typically, you use an IF function to perform a sequence of arbitrary tests, and you use a CASE function to search for a match to an expression. But a CASE function can always be rewritten as an IF function , although the CASE function will generally be more concise.

Many times you can use a group to get the same results as a complicated case function.

Examples:

CASE [Region] WHEN 'West' THEN 1 WHEN 'East' THEN 2 ELSE 3 END

CASE LEFT(DATENAME('weekday',[Order Date]),3) WHEN 'Sun' THEN 0 WHEN 'Mon' THEN 1 WHEN 'Tue' THEN 2 WHEN 'Wed' THEN 3 WHEN 'Thu' THEN 4 WHEN 'Fri' THEN 5 WHEN 'Sat' THEN 6 END

ELSE IF <expr> THEN <then> ELSE <else> END

Tests a series of expressions returning the <then> value for the first true <expr>.

Example:

If [Profit] > 0 THEN 'Profitable' ELSE 'Loss' END

ELSEIF IF <expr> THEN <then> [ELSEIF <expr2> THEN <then2>...] [ELSE <else>] END

Tests a series of expressions returning the <then> value for the first true <expr>.

Example:

IF [Profit] > 0 THEN 'Profitable' ELSEIF [Profit] = 0 THEN 'Breakeven' ELSE 'Loss' END

END IF <expr> THEN <then> [ELSEIF <expr2> THEN <then2>...] [ELSE <else>] END

Tests a series of expressions returning the <then> value for the first true <expr>. Must be placed at the end of an expression.

Example:

IF [Profit] > 0 THEN 'Profitable' ELSEIF [Profit] = 0 THEN 'Breakeven' ELSE 'Loss' END

IF IF <expr> THEN <then> [ELSEIF <expr2> THEN <then2>...] [ELSE <else>] END

Tests a series of expressions returning the <then> value for the first true <expr>.

Example:

IF [Profit] > 0 THEN 'Profitable' ELSEIF [Profit] = 0 THEN 'Breakeven' ELSE 'Loss' END

IFNULL IFNULL(expr1, expr2)

Returns <expr1> if it is not null, otherwise returns <expr2>.

Example:

IFNULL([Profit], 0)

IIF IIF(test, then, else, [unknown])

Checks whether a condition is met, and returns one value if TRUE, another value if FALSE, and an optional third value or NULL if unknown.

Example:

IIF([Profit] > 0, 'Profit', 'Loss')

ISDATE ISDATE(string)

Returns true if a given string is a valid date.

Example:

ISDATE("2004-04-15") = True

ISNULL ISNULL(expression)

Returns true if the expression does not contain valid data (Null).

Example:

ISNULL([Profit])

MAX MAX(expression) or Max(expr1, expr2)

Returns the maximum of a single expression across all records or the maximum of two expressions for each record.

Example:

MAX([Sales])

MIN MIN(expression) or MIN(expr1, expr2)

Returns the minimum of an expression across all records or the minimum of two expressions for each record.

Example:

MIN([Profit])

NOT IF NOT <expr> THEN <then> END

Performs logical negation on an expression.

Example:

IF NOT [Profit] > 0 THEN "Unprofitable" END

OR IF <expr1> OR <expr2> THEN <then> END

Performs a logical disjunction on two expressions.

Example:

IF [Profit] < 0 OR [Profit] = 0 THEN "Needs Improvement" END

THEN IF <expre> THEN <then> [ELSEIF ,expr2> THEN <then2>...] [ELSE <else>] END

Tests a series of expressions returning the <then> value for the first true <expr>.

Example:

IF [Profit] > 0 THEN 'Profitable' ELSEIF [Profit] = 0 THEN 'Break even' ELSE 'unprofitable' END

WHEN CASE <expr> WHEN <Value1> THEN <return1> ... [ELSE <else>] END

Finds the first <value> that matches <expr> and returns the corresponding <return>.

Example:

CASE [RomanNumberal] WHEN 'I' THEN 1 WHEN 'II' THEN 2 ELSE 3 END

ZN ZN(expression)

Returns <expression> if it is not null, otherwise returns zero.

Example:

ZN([Profit])

Aggregate functions

Aggregations and floating-point arithmetic: The results of some aggregations may not always be exactly as expected. For example, you may find that the Sum function returns a value such as -1.42e-14 for a column of numbers that you know should sum to exactly 0. This happens because the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 754 floating-point standard requires that numbers be stored in binary format, which means that numbers are sometimes rounded at extremely fine levels of precision. You can eliminate this potential distraction by using the ROUND function (see Number Functions) or by formatting the number to show fewer decimal places.

Function

Syntax

Definition

ATTR

ATTR(expression)

Returns the value of the expression if it has a single value for all rows. Otherwise returns an asterisk. Null values are ignored.

AVG

AVG(expression)

Returns the average of all the values in the expression. AVG can be used with numeric fields only. Null values are ignored.

COLLECT

COLLECT (spatial)

An aggregate calculation that combines the values in the argument field. Null values are ignored.

Note: The COLLECT function can only be used with spatial fields.

Example:

COLLECT ([Geometry])

CORR

CORR(expression 1, expression2)

Returns the Pearson correlation coefficient of two expressions.

The Pearson correlation measures the linear relationship between two variables. Results range from -1 to +1 inclusive, where 1 denotes an exact positive linear relationship, as when a positive change in one variable implies a positive change of corresponding magnitude in the other, 0 denotes no linear relationship between the variance, and −1 is an exact negative relationship.

CORR is available with the following data sources:

  • Tableau data extracts (you can create an extract from any data source)
  • Cloudera Hive
  • EXASolution
  • Firebird (version 3.0 and later)
  • Google BigQuery
  • Hortonworks Hadoop Hive
  • IBM PDA (Netezza)
  • Oracle
  • PostgreSQL
  • Presto
  • SybaseIQ
  • Teradata
  • Vertica

For other data sources, consider either extracting the data or using WINDOW_CORR. See Table Calculation Functions.

Note: The square of a CORR result is equivalent to the R-Squared value for a linear trend line model. See Trend Line Model Terms.

Example:

You can use CORR to visualize correlation in a disaggregated scatter plot. The way to do this is to use a table-scoped level of detail expression. For example:

{CORR(Sales, Profit)}

With a level of detail expression, the correlation is run over all rows. If you used a formula like CORR(Sales, Profit) (without the surrounding brackets to make it a level of detail expression), the view would show the correlation of each individual point in the scatter plot with each other point, which is undefined.

See Table-Scoped

COUNT

COUNT(expression)

Returns the number of items in a group. Null values are not counted.

COUNTD

COUNTD(expression)

Returns the number of distinct items in a group. Null values are not counted. This function is not available in the following cases: workbooks created before Tableau Desktop 8.2 that use Microsoft Excel or text file data sources, workbooks that use the legacy connection, and workbooks that use Microsoft Access data sources. Extract your data into an extract file to use this function. See Extract Your Data.

COVAR

COVAR(expression 1, expression2)

Returns the sample covariance of two expressions.

Covariance quantifies how two variables change together. A positive covariance indicates that the variables tend to move in the same direction, as when larger values of one variable tend to correspond to larger values of the other variable, on average. Sample covariance uses the number of non-null data points n - 1 to normalize the covariance calculation, rather than n, which is used by the population covariance (available with the COVARP function). Sample covariance is the appropriate choice when the data is a random sample that is being used to estimate the covariance for a larger population.

COVAR is available with the following data sources:

  • Tableau data extracts (you can create an extract from any data source)
  • Cloudera Hive
  • EXASolution
  • Firebird (version 3.0 and later)
  • Google BigQuery
  • Hortonworks Hadoop Hive
  • IBM PDA (Netezza)
  • Oracle
  • PostgreSQL
  • Presto
  • SybaseIQ
  • Teradata
  • Vertica

For other data sources, consider either extracting the data or using WINDOW_COVAR. See Table Calculation Functions.

If expression1 and expression2 are the same—for example, COVAR([profit], [profit])—COVAR returns a value that indicates how widely values are distributed.

Note: The value of COVAR(X, X) is equivalent to the value of VAR(X) and also to the value of STDEV(X)^2.

Example:

The following formula returns the sample covariance of Sales and Profit.

COVAR([Sales], [Profit])

COVARP

COVARP(expression 1, expression2)

Returns the population covariance of two expressions.

Covariance quantifies how two variables change together. A positive covariance indicates that the variables tend to move in the same direction, as when larger values of one variable tend to correspond to larger values of the other variable, on average. Population covariance is sample covariance multiplied by (n-1)/n, where n is the total number of non-null data points. Population covariance is the appropriate choice when there is data available for all items of interest as opposed to when there is only a random subset of items, in which case sample covariance (with the COVAR function) is appropriate.

COVARP is available with the following data sources:

  • Tableau data extracts (you can create an extract from any data source)
  • Cloudera Hive
  • EXASolution
  • Firebird (version 3.0 and later)
  • Google BigQuery
  • Hortonworks Hadoop Hive
  • IBM PDA (Netezza)
  • Oracle
  • PostgreSQL
  • Presto
  • SybaseIQ
  • Teradata
  • Vertica

For other data sources, consider either extracting the data or using WINDOW_COVARP. See Table Calculation Functions.

If expression1 and expression2 are the same—for example, COVARP([profit], [profit])—COVARP returns a value that indicates how widely values are distributed.

Note: The value of COVARP(X, X) is equivalent to the value of VARP(X) and also to the value of STDEVP(X)^2.

Example:

The following formula returns the population covariance of Sales and Profit.

COVARP([Sales], [Profit])

MAX

MAX(expression)

Returns the maximum of an expression across all records. If the expression is a string value, this function returns the last value where last is defined by alphabetical order.

MEDIAN

MEDIAN(expression)

Returns the median of an expression across all records. Median can only be used with numeric fields. Null values are ignored. This function is not available for workbooks created before Tableau Desktop 8.2 or that use legacy connections. It is also not available for connections using any of the following data sources:

  • Access
  • Amazon Redshift
  • Cloudera Hadoop
  • HP Vertica
  • IBM DB2
  • IBM PDA (Netezza)
  • Microsoft SQL Server
  • MySQL
  • SAP HANA
  • Teradata

For other data source types, you can extract your data into an extract file to use this function. See Extract Your Data.

MIN

MIN(expression)

Returns the minimum of an expression across all records. If the expression is a string value, this function returns the first value where first is defined by alphabetical order.

PERCENTILE

PERCENTILE(expression, number)

Returns the percentile value from the given expression corresponding to the specified number. The number must be between 0 and 1 (inclusive)—for example, 0.66, and must be a numeric constant.

This function is available for the following data sources.

  • Non-legacy Microsoft Excel and Text File connections.

  • Extracts and extract-only data source types (for example, Google Analytics, OData, or Salesforce).

  • Sybase IQ 15.1 and later data sources.

  • Oracle 10 and later data sources.

  • Cloudera Hive and Hortonworks Hadoop Hive data sources.

  • EXASolution 4.2 and later data sources.

For other data source types, you can extract your data into an extract file to use this function. See Extract Your Data.

STDEV

STDEV(expression)

Returns the statistical standard deviation of all values in the given expression based on a sample of the population.

STDEVP

STDEVP(expression)

Returns the statistical standard deviation of all values in the given expression based on a biased population.

SUM

SUM(expression)

Returns the sum of all values in the expression. SUM can be used with numeric fields only. Null values are ignored.

VAR

VAR(expression)

Returns the statistical variance of all values in the given expression based on a sample of the population.

VARP

VARP(expression)

Returns the statistical variance of all values in the given expression on the entire population.

User functions

Function

Syntax

Description

FULLNAME

FULLNAME( )

Returns the full name for the current user. This is the Tableau Server or Tableau Online full name when the user is signed in; otherwise the local or network full name for the Tableau Desktop user.

Example:

[Manager]=FULLNAME( )

If manager Dave Hallsten is signed in, this example returns True only if the Manager field in the view contained Dave Hallsten. When used as a filter, this calculated field can be used to create a user filter that only shows data that is relevant to the person signed in to the server.

ISFULLNAME

ISFULLNAME(string)

Returns true if the current user's full name matches the specified full name, or false if it does not match. This function uses the Tableau Server or Online full name when the user is signed in; otherwise it uses the local or network full name for the Tableau Desktop user.

Example:

ISFULLNAME(“Dave Hallsten”)

This example returns true if Dave Hallsten is the current user, otherwise it returns false.

ISMEMBEROF

ISMEMBEROF(string)

Returns true if the person currently using Tableau is a member of a group that matches the given string. If the person currently using Tableau is signed in, the group membership is determined by groups on Tableau Server or Tableau Online. If the person is not signed in, this function returns false.

Note: The function will return a "True" value if the given string is "All Users", whether signed in to Tableau Server, Tableau Online, or offline

Example:

IF ISMEMBEROF(“Sales”) THEN “Sales” ELSE “Other” END

ISUSERNAME

ISUSERNAME(string)

Returns true if the current user's username matches the specified username, or false if it does not match. This function uses the Tableau Server or Online username when the user is signed in; otherwise it uses the local or network username for the Tableau Desktop user.

Example:

ISUSERNAME(“dhallsten”)

This example returns true if dhallsten is the current user; otherwise it returns false.

Note: "All Users" will always return as true.

USERDOMAIN

USERDOMAIN()

Returns the domain for the current user when the user is signed on to Tableau Server. Returns the Windows domain if the Tableau Desktop user is on a domain. Otherwise this function returns a null string.

Example:

[Manager]=USERNAME() AND [Domain]=USERDOMAIN()

USERNAME

USERNAME( )

Returns the username for the current user. This is the Tableau Server or Tableau Online username when the user is signed in; otherwise it is the local or network username for the Tableau Desktop user.

Example:

[Manager]=USERNAME( )

If the manager dhallsten was signed in, this function would only return True when the Manager field in the view is dhallsten. When used as a filter this calculated field can be used to create a user filter that only shows data that is relevant to the person signed in to the server.

Table calculations

FIRST( )


Returns the number of rows from the current row to the first row in the partition. For example, the view below shows quarterly sales. When FIRST() is computed within the Date partition, the offset of the first row from the second row is -1.

Example

When the current row index is 3, FIRST() = -2.

INDEX( )


Returns the index of the current row in the partition, without any sorting with regard to value. The first row index starts at 1. For example, the table below shows quarterly sales. When INDEX() is computed within the Date partition, the index of each row is 1, 2, 3, 4..., etc.

Example

For the third row in the partition, INDEX() = 3.

LAST( )


Returns the number of rows from the current row to the last row in the partition. For example, the table below shows quarterly sales. When LAST() is computed within the Date partition, the offset of the last row from the second row is 5.

Example

When the current row index is 3 of 7, LAST() = 4.

LOOKUP(expression, [offset])


Returns the value of the expression in a target row, specified as a relative offset from the current row. Use FIRST() + n and LAST() - n as part of your offset definition for a target relative to the first/last rows in the partition. If offset is omitted, the row to compare to can be set on the field menu. This function returns NULL if the target row cannot be determined.

The view below shows quarterly sales. When LOOKUP (SUM(Sales), 2) is computed within the Date partition, each row shows the sales value from 2 quarters into the future.

Example

LOOKUP(SUM([Profit]), FIRST()+2) computes the SUM(Profit) in the third row of the partition.

PREVIOUS_VALUE(expression)


Returns the value of this calculation in the previous row. Returns the given expression if the current row is the first row of the partition.

Example

SUM([Profit]) * PREVIOUS_VALUE(1) computes the running product of SUM(Profit).

RANK(expression, ['asc' | 'desc'])


Returns the standard competition rank for the current row in the partition. Identical values are assigned an identical rank. Use the optional 'asc' | 'desc' argument to specify ascending or descending order. The default is descending.

With this function, the set of values (6, 9, 9, 14) would be ranked (4, 2, 2, 1).

Nulls are ignored in ranking functions. They are not numbered and they do not count against the total number of records in percentile rank calculations.

For information on different ranking options, see Rank calculation.

Example

The following image shows the effect of the various ranking functions (RANK, RANK_DENSE, RANK_MODIFIED, RANK_PERCENTILE, and RANK_UNIQUE) on a set of values. The data set contains information on 14 students (StudentA through StudentN); the Age column shows the current age of each student (all students are between 17 and 20 years of age). The remaining columns show the effect of each rank function on the set of age values, always assuming the default order (ascending or descending) for the function.

RANK_DENSE(expression, ['asc' | 'desc'])


Returns the dense rank for the current row in the partition. Identical values are assigned an identical rank, but no gaps are inserted into the number sequence. Use the optional 'asc' | 'desc' argument to specify ascending or descending order. The default is descending.

With this function, the set of values (6, 9, 9, 14) would be ranked (3, 2, 2, 1).

Nulls are ignored in ranking functions. They are not numbered and they do not count against the total number of records in percentile rank calculations.

For information on different ranking options, see Rank calculation.

RANK_MODIFIED(expression, ['asc' | 'desc'])


Returns the modified competition rank for the current row in the partition. Identical values are assigned an identical rank. Use the optional 'asc' | 'desc' argument to specify ascending or descending order. The default is descending.

With this function, the set of values (6, 9, 9, 14) would be ranked (4, 3, 3, 1).

Nulls are ignored in ranking functions. They are not numbered and they do not count against the total number of records in percentile rank calculations.

For information on different ranking options, see Rank calculation.

RANK_PERCENTILE(expression, ['asc' | 'desc'])


Returns the percentile rank for the current row in the partition. Use the optional 'asc' | 'desc' argument to specify ascending or descending order. The default is ascending.

With this function, the set of values (6, 9, 9, 14) would be ranked (0.25, 0.75, 0.75, 1.00).

Nulls are ignored in ranking functions. They are not numbered and they do not count against the total number of records in percentile rank calculations.

For information on different ranking options, see Rank calculation.

RANK_UNIQUE(expression, ['asc' | 'desc'])


Returns the unique rank for the current row in the partition. Identical values are assigned different ranks. Use the optional 'asc' | 'desc' argument to specify ascending or descending order. The default is descending.

With this function, the set of values (6, 9, 9, 14) would be ranked (4, 2, 3, 1).

Nulls are ignored in ranking functions. They are not numbered and they do not count against the total number of records in percentile rank calculations.

For information on different ranking options, see Rank calculation.

RUNNING_AVG(expression)


Returns the running average of the given expression, from the first row in the partition to the current row.

The view below shows quarterly sales. When RUNNING_AVG(SUM([Sales]) is computed within the Date partition, the result is a running average of the sales values for each quarter.

Example

RUNNING_AVG(SUM([Profit])) computes the running average of SUM(Profit).

RUNNING_COUNT(expression)


Returns the running count of the given expression, from the first row in the partition to the current row.

Example

RUNNING_COUNT(SUM([Profit])) computes the running count of SUM(Profit).

RUNNING_MAX(expression)


Returns the running maximum of the given expression, from the first row in the partition to the current row.

Example

RUNNING_MAX(SUM([Profit])) computes the running maximum of SUM(Profit).

RUNNING_MIN(expression)


Returns the running minimum of the given expression, from the first row in the partition to the current row.

Example

RUNNING_MIN(SUM([Profit])) computes the running minimum of SUM(Profit).

RUNNING_SUM(expression)


Returns the running sum of the given expression, from the first row in the partition to the current row.

Example

RUNNING_SUM(SUM([Profit])) computes the running sum of SUM(Profit)

SIZE()


Returns the number of rows in the partition. For example, the view below shows quarterly sales. Within the Date partition, there are seven rows so the Size() of the Date partition is 7.

Example

SIZE() = 5 when the current partition contains five rows.

SCRIPT_BOOL


Returns a Boolean result from the specified expression. The expression is passed directly to a running external service instance.

In R expressions, use .argn (with a leading period) to reference parameters (.arg1, .arg2, etc.).

In Python expressions, use _argn (with a leading underscore).

Examples

In this R example, .arg1 is equal to SUM([Profit]):

SCRIPT_BOOL("is.finite(.arg1)", SUM([Profit]))

The next example returns True for store IDs in Washington state, and False otherwise. This example could be the definition for a calculated field titled IsStoreInWA.

SCRIPT_BOOL('grepl(".*_WA", .arg1, perl=TRUE)',ATTR([Store ID]))

A command for Python would take this form:

SCRIPT_BOOL("return map(lambda x : x > 0, _arg1)", SUM([Profit]))

SCRIPT_INT


Returns an integer result from the specified expression. The expression is passed directly to a running external service instance.

In R expressions, use .argn (with a leading period) to reference parameters (.arg1, .arg2, etc.)

In Python expressions, use _argn (with a leading underscore).

Examples

In this R example, .arg1 is equal to SUM([Profit]):

SCRIPT_INT("is.finite(.arg1)", SUM([Profit]))

In the next example, k-means clustering is used to create three clusters:

SCRIPT_INT('result <- kmeans(data.frame(.arg1,.arg2,.arg3,.arg4), 3);result$cluster;', SUM([Petal length]), SUM([Petal width]),SUM([Sepal length]),SUM([Sepal width]))

A command for Python would take this form:

SCRIPT_INT("return map(lambda x : int(x * 5), _arg1)", SUM([Profit]))

SCRIPT_REAL


Returns a real result from the specified expression. The expression is passed directly to a running external service instance. In

R expressions, use .argn (with a leading period) to reference parameters (.arg1, .arg2, etc.)

In Python expressions, use _argn (with a leading underscore).

Examples

In this R example, .arg1 is equal to SUM([Profit]):

SCRIPT_REAL("is.finite(.arg1)", SUM([Profit]))

The next example converts temperature values from Celsius to Fahrenheit.

SCRIPT_REAL('library(udunits2);ud.convert(.arg1, "celsius", "degree_fahrenheit")',AVG([Temperature]))

A command for Python would take this form:

SCRIPT_REAL("return map(lambda x : x * 0.5, _arg1)", SUM([Profit]))

SCRIPT_STR


Returns a string result from the specified expression. The expression is passed directly to a running external service instance.

In R expressions, use .argn (with a leading period) to reference parameters (.arg1, .arg2, etc.)

In Python expressions, use _argn (with a leading underscore).

Examples

In this R example, .arg1 is equal to SUM([Profit]):

SCRIPT_STR("is.finite(.arg1)", SUM([Profit]))

The next example extracts a state abbreviation from a more complicated string (in the original form 13XSL_CA, A13_WA):

SCRIPT_STR('gsub(".*_", "", .arg1)',ATTR([Store ID]))

A command for Python would take this form:

SCRIPT_STR("return map(lambda x : x[:2], _arg1)", ATTR([Region]))

TOTAL(expression)


Returns the total for the given expression in a table calculation partition.

Example

Assume you are starting with this view:

You open the calculation editor and create a new field which you name Totality:

You then drop Totality on Text, to replace SUM(Sales). Your view changes such that it sums values based on the default Compute Using value:

This raises the question, What is the default Compute Using value? If you right-click (Control-click on a Mac) Totality in the Data pane and choose Edit, there is now an additional bit of information available:

The default Compute Using value is Table (Across). The result is that Totality is summing the values across each row of your table. Thus, the value that you see across each row is the sum of the values from the original version of the table.

The values in the 2011/Q1 row in the original table were $8601, $6579, $44262, and $15006. The values in the table after Totality replaces SUM(Sales) are all $74,448, which is the sum of the four original values.

Notice the triangle next to Totality after you drop it on Text:

This indicates that this field is using a table calculation. You can right-click the field and choose Edit Table Calculation to redirect your function to a different Compute Using value. For example, you could set it to Table (Down). In that case, your table would look like this:

WINDOW_AVG(expression, [start, end])


Returns the average of the expression within the window. The window is defined by means of offsets from the current row. Use FIRST()+n and LAST()-n for offsets from the first or last row in the partition. If the start and end are omitted, the entire partition is used.

For example, the view below shows quarterly sales. A window average within the Date partition returns the average sales across all dates.

Example

WINDOW_AVG(SUM([Profit]), FIRST()+1, 0) computes the average of SUM(Profit) from the second row to the current row.

WINDOW_CORR(expression1, expression2, [start, end])


Returns the Pearson correlation coefficient of two expressions within the window. The window is defined as offsets from the current row. Use FIRST()+n and LAST()-n for offsets from the first or last row in the partition. If start and end are omitted, the entire partition is used.

The Pearson correlation measures the linear relationship between two variables. Results range from -1 to +1 inclusive, where 1 denotes an exact positive linear relationship, as when a positive change in one variable implies a positive change of corresponding magnitude in the other, 0 denotes no linear relationship between the variance, and −1 is an exact negative relationship.

There is an equivalent aggregation fuction: CORR. See Tableau Functions (Alphabetical).

Example

The following formula returns the Pearson correlation of SUM(Profit) and SUM(Sales) from the five previous rows to the current row.

WINDOW_CORR(SUM[Profit]), SUM([Sales]), -5, 0)

WINDOW_COUNT(expression, [start, end])


Returns the count of the expression within the window. The window is defined by means of offsets from the current row. Use FIRST()+n and LAST()-n for offsets from the first or last row in the partition. If the start and end are omitted, the entire partition is used.

Example

WINDOW_COUNT(SUM([Profit]), FIRST()+1, 0) computes the count of SUM(Profit) from the second row to the current row

WINDOW_COVAR(expression1, expression2, [start, end])


Returns the sample covariance of two expressions within the window. The window is defined as offsets from the current row. Use FIRST()+n and LAST()-n for offsets from the first or last row in the partition. If the start and end arguments are omitted, the window is the entire partition.

Sample covariance uses the number of non-null data points n - 1 to normalize the covariance calculation, rather than n, which is used by the population covariance (with the WINDOW_COVARP function). Sample covariance is the appropriate choice when the data is a random sample that is being used to estimate the covariance for a larger population.

There is an equivalent aggregation fuction: COVAR. See Tableau Functions (Alphabetical).

Example

The following formula returns the sample covariance of SUM(Profit) and SUM(Sales) from the two previous rows to the current row.

WINDOW_COVAR(SUM([Profit]), SUM([Sales]), -2, 0)

WINDOW_COVARP(expression1, expression2, [start, end])


Returns the population covariance of two expressions within the window. The window is defined as offsets from the current row. Use FIRST()+n and LAST()-n for offsets from the first or last row in the partition. If start and end are omitted, the entire partition is used.

Population covariance is sample covariance multiplied by (n-1)/n, where n is the total number of non-null data points. Population covariance is the appropriate choice when there is data available for all items of interest as opposed to when there is only a random subset of items, in which case sample covariance (with the WINDOW_COVAR function) is appropriate.

There is an equivalent aggregation fuction: COVARP. Tableau Functions (Alphabetical).

Example

The following formula returns the population covariance of SUM(Profit) and SUM(Sales) from the two previous rows to the current row.

WINDOW_COVARP(SUM([Profit]), SUM([Sales]), -2, 0)

WINDOW_MEDIAN(expression, [start, end])


Returns the median of the expression within the window. The window is defined by means of offsets from the current row. Use FIRST()+n and LAST()-n for offsets from the first or last row in the partition. If the start and end are omitted, the entire partition is used.

For example, the view below shows quarterly profit. A window median within the Date partition returns the median profit across all dates.

Example

WINDOW_MEDIAN(SUM([Profit]), FIRST()+1, 0) computes the median of SUM(Profit) from the second row to the current row.

WINDOW_MAX(expression, [start, end])


Returns the maximum of the expression within the window. The window is defined by means of offsets from the current row. Use FIRST()+n and LAST()-n for offsets from the first or last row in the partition. If the start and end are omitted, the entire partition is used.

For example, the view below shows quarterly sales. A window maximum within the Date partition returns the maximum sales across all dates.

Example

WINDOW_MAX(SUM([Profit]), FIRST()+1, 0) computes the maximum of SUM(Profit) from the second row to the current row.

WINDOW_MIN(expression, [start, end])


Returns the minimum of the expression within the window. The window is defined by means of offsets from the current row. Use FIRST()+n and LAST()-n for offsets from the first or last row in the partition. If the start and end are omitted, the entire partition is used.

For example, the view below shows quarterly sales. A window minimum within the Date partition returns the minimum sales across all dates.

Example

WINDOW_MIN(SUM([Profit]), FIRST()+1, 0) computes the minimum of SUM(Profit) from the second row to the current row.

WINDOW_PERCENTILE(expression, number, [start, end])


Returns the value corresponding to the specified percentile within the window. The window is defined by means of offsets from the current row. Use FIRST()+n and LAST()-n for offsets from the first or last row in the partition. If the start and end are omitted, the entire partition is used.

Example

WINDOW_PERCENTILE(SUM([Profit]), 0.75, -2, 0) returns the 75th percentile for SUM(Profit) from the two previous rows to the current row.

WINDOW_STDEV(expression, [start, end])


Returns the sample standard deviation of the expression within the window. The window is defined by means of offsets from the current row. Use FIRST()+n and LAST()-n for offsets from the first or last row in the partition. If the start and end are omitted, the entire partition is used.

Example

WINDOW_STDEV(SUM([Profit]), FIRST()+1, 0) computes the standard deviation of SUM(Profit) from the second row to the current row.

WINDOW_STDEVP(expression, [start, end])


Returns the biased standard deviation of the expression within the window. The window is defined by means of offsets from the current row. Use FIRST()+n and LAST()-n for offsets from the first or last row in the partition. If the start and end are omitted, the entire partition is used.

Example

WINDOW_STDEVP(SUM([Profit]), FIRST()+1, 0) computes the standard deviation of SUM(Profit) from the second row to the current row.

WINDOW_SUM(expression, [start, end])


Returns the sum of the expression within the window. The window is defined by means of offsets from the current row. Use FIRST()+n and LAST()-n for offsets from the first or last row in the partition. If the start and end are omitted, the entire partition is used.

For example, the view below shows quarterly sales. A window sum computed within the Date partition returns the summation of sales across all quarters.

Example

WINDOW_SUM(SUM([Profit]), FIRST()+1, 0) computes the sum of SUM(Profit) from the second row to the current row.

WINDOW_VAR(expression, [start, end])


Returns the sample variance of the expression within the window. The window is defined by means of offsets from the current row. Use FIRST()+n and LAST()-n for offsets from the first or last row in the partition. If the start and end are omitted, the entire partition is used.

Example

WINDOW_VAR((SUM([Profit])), FIRST()+1, 0) computes the variance of SUM(Profit) from the second row to the current row.

WINDOW_VARP(expression, [start, end])


Returns the biased variance of the expression within the window. The window is defined by means of offsets from the current row. Use FIRST()+n and LAST()-n for offsets from the first or last row in the partition. If the start and end are omitted, the entire partition is used.

Example

WINDOW_VARP(SUM([Profit]), FIRST()+1, 0) computes the variance of SUM(Profit) from the second row to the current row.

Pass-Through functions (RAWSQL)

These RAWSQL pass-through functions can be used to send SQL expressions directly to the database, without first being interpreted by Tableau. If you have custom database functions that Tableau doesn’t know about, you can use these pass-through functions to call these custom functions.

Your database usually will not understand the field names that are shown in Tableau. Because Tableau does not interpret the SQL expressions you include in the pass-through functions, using the Tableau field names in your expression may cause errors. You can use a substitution syntax to insert the correct field name or expression for a Tableau calculation into pass-through SQL. For example, if you had a function that computed the median of a set of values, you could call that function on the Tableau column [Sales] like this:

RAWSQLAGG_REAL(“MEDIAN(%1)”, [Sales])

Because Tableau does not interpret the expression, you must define the aggregation. You can use the RAWSQLAGG functions described below when you are using aggregated expressions.

RAWSQL pass-through functions will not work with published data sources.

These functions may return different results starting in Tableau Desktop 8.2 than they did in earlier versions of Tableau Desktop. This is because Tableau now uses ODBC for pass-through functions instead of OLE DB. ODBC truncates when returning real values as integer; OLE DB rounds when returning real values as integer.

RAWSQL Functions

The following RAWSQL functions are available in Tableau.

RAWSQL_BOOL(“sql_expr”, [arg1], …[argN])


Returns a Boolean result from a given SQL expression. The SQL expression is passed directly to the underlying database. Use %n in the SQL expression as a substitution syntax for database values.

Example

In the example, %1 is equal to [Sales] and %2 is equal to [Profit].

RAWSQL_BOOL(“IIF( %1 > %2, True, False)”, [Sales], [Profit])

RAWSQL_DATE(“sql_expr”, [arg1], …[argN])


Returns a Date result from a given SQL expression. The SQL expression is passed directly to the underlying database. Use %n in the SQL expression as a substitution syntax for database values.

Example

In this example, %1 is equal to [Order Date].

RAWSQL_DATE(“%1”, [Order Date])

RAWSQL_DATETIME(“sql_expr”, [arg1], …[argN])


Returns a Date and Time result from a given SQL expression. The SQL expression is passed directly to the underlying database. Use %n in the SQL expression as a substitution syntax for database values. In this example, %1 is equal to [Delivery Date].

Example

RAWSQL_DATETIME(“MIN(%1)”, [Delivery Date])

RAWSQL_INT(“sql_expr”, [arg1], …[argN])


Returns an integer result from a given SQL expression. The SQL expression is passed directly to the underlying database. Use %n in the SQL expression as a substitution syntax for database values. In this example, %1 is equal to [Sales].

Example

RAWSQL_INT(“500 + %1”, [Sales])

RAWSQL_REAL(“sql_expr”, [arg1], …[argN])


Returns a numeric result from a given SQL expression that is passed directly to the underlying database. Use %n in the SQL expression as a substitution syntax for database values. In this example, %1 is equal to [Sales]

Example

RAWSQL_REAL(“-123.98 * %1”, [Sales])

RAWSQL_SPATIAL


Returns a Spatial from a given SQL expression that is passed directly to the underlying data source. Use %n in the SQL expression as a substitution syntax for database values.

Example

In this example, %1 is equal to [Geometry].

RAWSQL_SPATIAL("%1", [Geometry])

RAWSQL_STR(“sql_expr”, [arg1], …[argN])


Returns a string from a given SQL expression that is passed directly to the underlying database. Use %n in the SQL expression as a substitution syntax for database values. In this example, %1 is equal to [Customer Name].

Example

RAWSQL_STR(“%1”, [Customer Name])

RAWSQLAGG_BOOL(“sql_expr”, [arg1], …[argN])


Returns a Boolean result from a given aggregate SQL expression. The SQL expression is passed directly to the underlying database. Use %n in the SQL expression as a substitution syntax for database values.

Example

In the example, %1 is equal to [Sales] and %2 is equal to [Profit].

RAWSQLAGG_BOOL(“SUM( %1) >SUM( %2)”, [Sales], [Profit])

RAWSQLAGG_DATE(“sql_expr”, [arg1], …[argN])


Returns a Date result from a given aggregate SQL expression. The SQL expression is passed directly to the underlying database. Use %n in the SQL expression as a substitution syntax for database values. In this example, %1 is equal to [Order Date].

Example

RAWSQLAGG_DATE(“MAX(%1)”, [Order Date])

RAWSQLAGG_DATETIME(“sql_expr”, [arg1], …[argN])


Returns a Date and Time result from a given aggregate SQL expression. The SQL expression is passed directly to the underlying database. Use %n in the SQL expression as a substitution syntax for database values. In this example, %1 is equal to [Delivery Date].

Example

RAWSQLAGG_DATETIME(“MIN(%1)”, [Delivery Date])

RAWSQLAGG_INT(“sql_expr”, [arg1,] …[argN])


Returns an integer result from a given aggregate SQL expression. The SQL expression is passed directly to the underlying database. Use %n in the SQL expression as a substitution syntax for database values. In this example, %1 is equal to [Sales].

Example

RAWSQLAGG_INT(“500 + SUM(%1)”, [Sales])

RAWSQLAGG_REAL(“sql_expr”, [arg1,] …[argN])


Returns a numeric result from a given aggregate SQL expression that is passed directly to the underlying database. Use %n in the SQL expression as a substitution syntax for database values. In this example, %1 is equal to [Sales]

Example

RAWSQLAGG_REAL(“SUM( %1)”, [Sales])

RAWSQLAGG_STR(“sql_expr”, [arg1,] …[argN])


Returns a string from a given aggregate SQL expression that is passed directly to the underlying database. Use %n in the SQL expression as a substitution syntax for database values. In this example, %1 is equal to [Discount].

Example

RAWSQLAGG_STR(“AVG(%1)”, [Discount])

Spatial functions

Spatial functions allow you to perform advanced spatial analysis and combine spatial files with data in other formats like text files or spreadsheets.

Function

Syntax

Description

DISTANCE

DISTANCE(<geometry1>,<geometry2>,"<units>")

Returns distance measurement between two points in a specified unit. Supported unit names: meters ("meters," "metres" "m), kilometers ("kilometers," "kilometres," "km"), miles ("miles" or "miles"), feet ("feet," "ft").

This function can only be created with a live connection and will continue to work when a data source is converted to an extract.

Example:

DISTANCE([Origin MakePoint],[Destination MakePoint], "km")

MAKELINE MAKELINE(<geometry1>,<geometry2>)

Generates a line mark between two points; useful for building origin-destination maps.

CASE is often easier to use than IIF or IF THEN ELSE.

Typically, you use an IF function to perform a sequence of arbitrary tests, and you use a CASE function to search for a match to an expression. But a CASE function can always be rewritten as an IF function , although the CASE function will generally be more concise.

Many times you can use a group to get the same results as a complicated case function.

Examples:

MAKELINE(OriginPoint, DestinationPoint)

MAKELINE(MAKEPOINT(OriginLat],[OriginLong]),MAKEPOINT([DestinationLat],[DestinationLong] )

MAKEPOINT MAKEPOINT(<latitude>, <longitude>)

Converts data from latitude and longitude columns into spatial objects. You can use MAKEPOINT to spatially-enable a data source so that it can be joined with a spatial file using a spatial join. For more information, see Join Spatial Files in Tableau

To use MAKEPOINT, your data must contain latitude and longitude coordinates.

Example:

MAKEPOINT([AirportLatitude],[AirportLongitude])

MAKEPOINT(X,Y, SRID) MAKEPOINT(<xcoordinate>, <ycoordinate>, <SRID>

Converts data from projected geographic coordinates into spatial objects. SRID is a spatial reference identifier that uses ESPG reference system codes to specify coordinate systems. If SRID is not specified, WGS84 is assumed and parameters are treated as latitude/longitude in degrees.

This function can only be created with a live connection and will continue to work when a data source is converted to an extract.

Example:

MAKEPOINT([Xcoord],[Ycoord],3493)

Additional functions

Regular Expressions

REGEXP_REPLACE(string, pattern, replacement)

Returns a copy of the given string where the regular expression pattern is replaced by the replacement string. This function is available for Text File, Hadoop Hive, Google BigQuery, PostgreSQL, Tableau Data Extract, Microsoft Excel, Salesforce, Vertica, Pivotal Greenplum, Teradata (version 14.1 and above), Snowflake, and Oracle data sources.

For Tableau data extracts, the pattern and the replacement must be constants.

For information on regular expression syntax, see your data source's documentation. For Tableau extracts, regular expression syntax conforms to the standards of the ICU (International Components for Unicode), an open source project of mature C/C++ and Java libraries for Unicode support, software internationalization, and software globalization. See the Regular Expressions page in the online ICU User Guide.

Example

REGEXP_REPLACE('abc 123', '\s', '-') = 'abc-123'

REGEXP_MATCH(string, pattern)

Returns true if a substring of the specified string matches the regular expression pattern. This function is available for Text File, Google BigQuery, PostgreSQL, Tableau Data Extract, Microsoft Excel, Salesforce, Vertica, Pivotal Greenplum, Teradata (version 14.1 and above), Impala 2.3.0 (through Cloudera Hadoop data sources), Snowflake, and Oracle data sources.

For Tableau data extracts, the pattern must be a constant.

For information on regular expression syntax, see your data source's documentation. For Tableau extracts, regular expression syntax conforms to the standards of the ICU (International Components for Unicode), an open source project of mature C/C++ and Java libraries for Unicode support, software internationalization, and software globalization. See the Regular Expressions page in the online ICU User Guide.

Example

REGEXP_MATCH('-([1234].[The.Market])-','\[\s*(\w*\.)(\w*\s*\])')=true

REGEXP_EXTRACT(string, pattern)


Returns the portion of the string that matches the regular expression pattern. This function is available for Text File, Hadoop Hive, Google BigQuery, PostgreSQL, Tableau Data Extract, Microsoft Excel, Salesforce, Vertica, Pivotal Greenplum, Teradata (version 14.1 and above), Snowflake, and Oracle data sources.

For Tableau data extracts, the pattern must be a constant.

For information on regular expression syntax, see your data source's documentation. For Tableau extracts, regular expression syntax conforms to the standards of the ICU (International Components for Unicode), an open source project of mature C/C++ and Java libraries for Unicode support, software internationalization, and software globalization. See the Regular Expressions page in the online ICU User Guide.

Example

REGEXP_EXTRACT('abc 123', '[a-z]+\s+(\d+)') = '123'

REGEXP_EXTRACT_NTH(string, pattern, index)

Returns the portion of the string that matches the regular expression pattern. The substring is matched to the nth capturing group, where n is the given index. If index is 0, the entire string is returned. This function is available for Text File, PostgreSQL, Tableau Data Extract, Microsoft Excel, Salesforce, Vertica, Pivotal Greenplum, Teradata (version 14.1 and above), and Oracle data sources.

For Tableau data extracts, the pattern must be a constant.

For information on regular expression syntax, see your data source's documentation. For Tableau extracts, regular expression syntax conforms to the standards of the ICU (International Components for Unicode), an open source project of mature C/C++ and Java libraries for Unicode support, software internationalization, and software globalization. See the Regular Expressions page in the online ICU User Guide.

Example

REGEXP_EXTRACT_NTH('abc 123', '([a-z]+)\s+(\d+)', 2) = '123'

Hadoop Hive Specific Functions

Note: Only the PARSE_URL and PARSE_URL_QUERY functions are available for Cloudera Impala data sources.

GET_JSON_OBJECT(JSON string, JSON path)

Returns the JSON object within the JSON string based on the JSON path.

PARSE_URL(string, url_part)

Returns a component of the given URL string where the component is defined by url_part. Valid url_part values include: 'HOST', 'PATH', 'QUERY', 'REF', 'PROTOCOL', 'AUTHORITY', 'FILE' and 'USERINFO'.

Example

PARSE_URL('http://www.tableau.com', 'HOST') = 'www.tableau.com'

PARSE_URL_QUERY(string, key)

Returns the value of the specified query parameter in the given URL string. The query parameter is defined by the key.

Example

PARSE_URL_QUERY('http://www.tableau.com?page=1&cat=4', 'page') = '1'

XPATH_BOOLEAN(XML string, XPath expression string)

Returns true if the XPath expression matches a node or evaluates to true.

Example

XPATH_BOOLEAN('<values> <value id="0">1</value><value id="1">5</value>', 'values/value[@id="1"] = 5') = true

XPATH_DOUBLE(XML string, XPath expression string)

Returns the floating-point value of the XPath expression.

Example

XPATH_DOUBLE('<values><value>1.0</value><value>5.5</value> </values>', 'sum(value/*)') = 6.5

XPATH_FLOAT(XML string, XPath expression string)

Returns the floating-point value of the XPath expression.

Example

XPATH_FLOAT('<values><value>1.0</value><value>5.5</value> </values>','sum(value/*)') = 6.5

XPATH_INT(XML string, XPath expression string)

Returns the numerical value of the XPath expression, or zero if the XPath expression cannot evaluate to a number.

Example

XPATH_INT('<values><value>1</value><value>5</value> </values>','sum(value/*)') = 6

XPATH_LONG(XML string, XPath expression string)

Returns the numerical value of the XPath expression, or zero if the XPath expression cannot evaluate to a number.

Example

XPATH_LONG('<values><value>1</value><value>5</value> </values>','sum(value/*)') = 6

XPATH_SHORT(XML string, XPath expression string)

Returns the numerical value of the XPath expression, or zero if the XPath expression cannot evaluate to a number.

Example

XPATH_SHORT('<values><value>1</value><value>5</value> </values>','sum(value/*)') = 6

XPATH_STRING(XML string, XPath expression string)

Returns the text of the first matching node.

Example

XPATH_STRING('<sites ><url domain="org">http://www.w3.org</url> <url domain="com">http://www.tableau.com</url></sites>', 'sites/url[@domain="com"]') = 'http://www.tableau.com'

Google BigQuery Specific Functions

DOMAIN(string_url)

Given a URL string, returns the domain as a string.

Example

DOMAIN('http://www.google.com:80/index.html') = 'google.com'

GROUP_CONCAT(expression)

Concatenates values from each record into a single comma-delimited string. This function acts like a SUM() for strings.

Example

GROUP_CONCAT(Region) = "Central,East,West"

HOST(string_url)

Given a URL string, returns the host name as a string.

Example

HOST('http://www.google.com:80/index.html') = 'www.google.com:80'

LOG2(number)

Returns the logarithm base 2 of a number.

Example

LOG2(16) = '4.00'

LTRIM_THIS(string, string)

Returns the first string with any leading occurrence of the second string removed.

Example

LTRIM_THIS('[-Sales-]','[-') = 'Sales-]'

RTRIM_THIS(string, string)

Returns the first string with any trailing occurrence of the second string removed.

Example

RTRIM_THIS('[-Market-]','-]') = '[-Market'

TIMESTAMP_TO_USEC(expression)

Converts a TIMESTAMP data type to a UNIX timestamp in microseconds.

Example

TIMESTAMP_TO_USEC(#2012-10-01 01:02:03#)=1349053323000000

USEC_TO_TIMESTAMP(expression)

Converts a UNIX timestamp in microsseconds to a TIMESTAMP data type.

Example

USEC_TO_TIMESTAMP(1349053323000000) = #2012-10-01 01:02:03#

TLD(string_url)

Given a URL string, returns the top level domain plus any country domain in the URL.

Example

TLD('http://www.google.com:80/index.html') = '.com'

TLD('http://www.google.co.uk:80/index.html') = '.co.uk'



Want to learn more about functions?

Read the functions topics.

See also

Tableau Functions (Alphabetical)

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