You can install Tableau Server in a disconnected environment that has no outside network access of any kind. Such disconnected environments, commonly referred to as air-gapped, are used when high security is needed to prevent data breaches or to guard against hacking. Air-gapped environments have no internet access, no outside network access, no outside wireless access, etc. The only means of getting software and data into or out of an air-gapped environment is by using removable media such as USB sticks or writable optical CDs or DVDs.
Installing Tableau Server in an air-gapped environment is an advanced task for IT administrators who are familiar with the security considerations, best practices, and pitfalls of installing software in air-gapped environments.
The following Tableau Server features will be unavailable or will have reduced functionality in an air-gapped environment:
Maps – Tableau Server uses externally hosted map data by default. Beginning with version 2020.4.0, you can configure Tableau Server to use offline maps. With earlier versions of Tableau, maps are unavailable in an air-gapped environment unless you also install a map server in your air-gapped environment. For more details, see Displaying Maps in an Air-Gapped Environment.
Licensing – Tableau Server needs to connect to the internet in order to activate product keys. However, you can manually activate the product keys.
External data – Any data located outside your air-gapped environment is unavailable.
In order to install Tableau Server in an air-gapped environment, you’ll need the following:
A trusted computer with limited access to the internet that you can use to download the installation packages and resources required by Tableau Server. A trusted computer has been scanned and cleared of any viruses and malware.
Trusted removable media that you can use to transfer the downloaded software to your air-gapped environment. Trusted removable media is removable media that is new and previously unused and comes from a reputable or known source. Trusted removable media has been scanned to verify that it does not contain any viruses or malware.
Air-gapped environment with computers and storage that meet the requirements for installing Tableau Server.
Installing Tableau Server on an Air-Gapped Computer Running Linux
The easiest way to install Tableau Server on a computer in an air-gapped environment is to do so before the computer is placed into the air-gapped environment. If that’s not possible, you’ll need to download the required packages to a trusted computer outside the air gap:
On a trusted computer outside the air gap with internet access, download the Tableau Server installation package.
Extract the list of dependent packages:
dpkg --field <debfile> Depends(where
<debfile>is the name of the .deb package you downloaded from Tableau).
dpkg --field tableau-server-linux-1.deb DependsExample output:
ca-certificates, fontconfig, net-tools, bash-completion, ca-certificates-java, freeglut3, libegl1-mesa, libfreetype6, libgssapi-krb5-2, libxcomposite1, libxrender1, libxslt1.1, lsb-core
On RHEL and RHEL-like Linux distributions:
yum -q deplist <RPM file>(where
<RPM file>is the .rpm package you downloaded from Tableau).
yum -q deplist tableau-server-linux_1.rpmExample output:
package: tableau-server-10400.17.0703.1600.x86_64 10400-17.0703.1600 dependency: /bin/sh provider: bash.x86_64 4.2.46-21.el7_3 dependency: bash-completion provider: bash-completion.noarch 1:2.1-6.el7 dependency: ca-certificates provider: ca-certificates.noarch 2017.2.14-70.1.el7_3 dependency: fontconfig provider: fontconfig.x86_64 2.10.95-10.el7 provider: fontconfig.i686 2.10.95-10.el7 dependency: freeglut provider: freeglut.x86_64 2.8.1-3.el7 provider: freeglut.i686 2.8.1-3.el7 dependency: freetype provider: freetype.x86_64 2.4.11-12.el7 provider: freetype.i686 2.4.11-12.el7 dependency: krb5-libs provider: krb5-libs.x86_64 1.14.1-27.el7_3 provider: krb5-libs.i686 1.14.1-27.el7_3 dependency: libXcomposite provider: libXcomposite.x86_64 0.4.4-4.1.el7 provider: libXcomposite.i686 0.4.4-4.1.el7 dependency: libXrender provider: libXrender.x86_64 0.9.8-2.1.el7 provider: libXrender.i686 0.9.8-2.1.el7 dependency: libxslt provider: libxslt.x86_64 1.1.28-5.el7 provider: libxslt.i686 1.1.28-5.el7 dependency: mesa-libEGL provider: mesa-libEGL.x86_64 11.2.2-2.20160614.el7 provider: mesa-libEGL.i686 11.2.2-2.20160614.el7 dependency: net-tools provider: net-tools.x86_64 2.0-0.17.20131004git.el7 dependency: redhat-lsb-core provider: redhat-lsb-core.x86_64 4.1-27.el7.centos.1 provider: redhat-lsb-core.i686 4.1-27.el7.centos.1
Download each of the dependent packages:
apt-get download <package1> <package2>…
On RHEL and RHEL-like Linux distributions:
yumdownloader <package1> <package2>…
Transfer the packages to your removable media.
On your air-gapped computer, insert the removable media containing the Tableau Server installation package and dependent packages, and then run the installer.
Note: Server ATR is the default activation method for Tableau Server 2021.4 and later. When installing Tableau Server in an air-gapped environment, you cannot use Server ATR for activation. Instead, you must activate manually. When initialising TSM, use the
After installation is complete, you can activate the Tableau Server product keys. For more information, see Activating Tableau Server in an Air-Gapped Environment.
Activating Tableau Server in an Air-Gapped Environment
Because an air-gapped computer is not connected to the internet, you’ll need to perform the Tableau Server activation process manually.
Step 1. Log in to Tableau Services Manager
To log in to Tableau Services Manager (TSM), run the following command:
tsm login -u <username>
What if I can't log in?
The account that you use to configure the rest of the installation must be a member of the
tsmadmin group that was created during initialisation. To view the user accounts in the
tsmadmin group, run the following command:
grep tsmadmin /etc/group
If the user account is not in the group, run the following command to add the user to the
sudo usermod -G tsmadmin -a <username>
After you have added the user to the
tsmadmin group, run the
tsm login command.
Step 2. Transcribe data from your air-gapped system into an activation request template.
On your Tableau Server in the air-gapped environment, use TSM to obtain the offline activation file. At a command prompt:
tsm licenses get-offline-activation-file -k <product-key> -o <target-directory>
<target-directory>must exist. You can obtain your product key in the Tableau Customer Portal(Link opens in a new window).
If you can copy the offline request file (
TableauOfflineActivationRequest.tlq) from the target directory to a computer that has Internet access, skip to step 5.
Otherwise, if you cannot copy the file to another computer due to security reasons, continue with step 3.
Download and open the
server_linux.tlq(Link opens in a new window) file in an XML text editor such as Notepad++ on a trusted computer that has Internet access.
You'll need to write down the values listed in step 4 from the air-gapped computer in order to copy them to the offline template (
Update the following XML elements in the appropriate
server_linux.tlqfile with the values for the same elements listed below from the air-gapped computer.
All the Machine / Hash values in the .tlq files are Hex values. The only valid characters are 0 - 9 and A - F. Use all caps for any letters.
Do not add any additional spaces or carriage controls and only modify the “X” characters found in the template. The format of the file must not change.
Line 2 - <EntitlementId>
Line 5 - <ClientVersion>
Line 5 - <RevisionType> (This value is present in the server_linux.tlq file.)
Line 5 - <MachineIdentifier> (This value is present in the server_linux.tlq file.)
Line 11 - <Value> (If the value is not present, remove the "X" place holder, leaving <Value></Value>.)
Line 12 - <Value> (If the value is not present, remove the "X" place holder, leaving <Value></Value>.)
Line 13 - <Value> (If the value is not present, remove the "X" place holder, leaving <Value></Value>.)
Line 15 - <SequenceNumber>
Line 61 - <Hash>
Upload the offline request file (TableauOfflineActivationRequest.tlq) or edited template file (server_linux.tlq) to the Tableau Offline Activation(Link opens in a new window) website.
The website should say
The activation was successful. Please click here to download your activation file.
activation.tlffile and transfer it to your Tableau Server.
Step 3. Initialise or activate your licence
Move the activation file (
activation.tlf) to your air-gapped computer using trusted removable media.
Run the following command:
tsm licenses activate -f <path-and-activation-file>
You should see the message "
Activation successful.", which indicates that Tableau Server is activated.
Displaying Maps in an Air-Gapped Environment
In an air-gapped environment, maps in Tableau Server will be unavailable by default due to the lack of internet access. If you have Tableau Server 2020.4.0 or later, you can configure Tableau to use local maps. If you have an earlier version, you can use one of several workarounds to display maps in an offline environment.
Configuring Tableau Server to use offline maps (version 2020.4.0 and later):
Open a command prompt as administrator.
Configure Tableau to use locally available offline maps:
tsm configuration set -k vizqlserver.force_maps_to_offline -v true
tsm pending-changes apply
Workarounds to display maps in Tableau Server in an offline environment (versions earlier than 2020.4.0):
Option 1 – Use the offline background maps
To use the offline background map select Map > Background maps > Offline. For more information, see Select Background Maps(Link opens in a new window).
Note: Due to size limitations with the offline map, zooming in too deep may result in errors as the images for the more close-up maps are not stored offline.
Option 2 – Use a map as a background image
Locate the desired map online and save it as an image file, or copy a map from another location. Set this map image as a static background image in Tableau Desktop. For more information, see Use Background Images in Your Views(Link opens in a new window).
Note: Zooming in and out will not work with background images.
Option 3 – Use a local GeoServer
For more information, see Use Web Map Service (WMS) Servers(Link opens in a new window).